Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The accompanying unaudited financial statements have been prepared in conformity with US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("US GAAP") and in conformity with the instructions on Form 10-Q and Rule 8-03 of Regulation S-X and the related rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and have been prepared on a
basis which assumes that the Company will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business.
In the opinion of management, all adjustments (which include normal recurring adjustments) necessary to present fairly the financial position as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 and results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 have been made. The results of operations for the periods presented is not necessarily indicative of the results of operations expected for the full year. These unaudited financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in making estimates, actual results reported in future periods may be based on amounts that differ from those estimates.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 there were no cash equivalents. At times, the Company’s cash balances may exceed the current insured amounts under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). 
The Company expenses the cost of research and development as incurred. Research and development expenses consist primarily of professional services costs associated with the development of cardiovascular technologies and products.
The Company’s financial instruments consist primarily of cash, accounts payable, accrued liabilities and debt instruments.
Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Where available, fair value is based on observable market prices or is derived from such prices. The Company uses the market approach valuation technique to value its investments. The market approach uses prices and other pertinent information generated from market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities. The types of factors that the Company may consider in fair value pricing the investments include available current market data, including relevant and applicable market quotes.
Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value are classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1 - Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets.
Level 2 - Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets, that are observable either directly or indirectly.
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data, which require the reporting entity to develop its own assumptions.
In certain cases, the inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, the assignment of an asset or liability within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability.
The Company classifies as equity any contracts that (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) gives the Company a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The
Company classifies as assets or liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net-cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the control of the Company) or (ii) gives the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement).
The Company accounts for its currently issued warrant instruments in conjunction with the Company’s common stock in permanent equity. These warrants are indexed to the Company’s stock and meet the requirements of equity classification as prescribed under ASC 815. Warrants classified as equity are initially measured at fair value, and subsequent changes in fair value are not recognized so long as the warrants continue to be classified as equity.
The Company periodically issues stock options and restricted stock awards to employees and non-employees for services. The Company has adopted ASU 2018-07 which expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from non-employees. The Company accounts for such grants issued and vesting to employees and non-employees based on ASC 718, whereby the value of the award is measured on the date of grant and recognized as compensation expense over the vesting period.
The Company grants certain option holders the right to early exercise, as of September 30, 2021, 32,007 options remain unvested. These early exercised grants are not considered an expense or included in either shares outstanding or weighted average shares outstanding until vested.
The fair value of stock options on the date of grant is calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, based on key assumptions such as the fair value of common stock, expected volatility and expected term. These estimates require the input of subjective assumptions, including (i) the expected stock price volatility, (ii) the calculation of the expected term of the award, (iii) the risk-free interest rate and (iv) expected dividends. These assumptions are primarily based on third-party valuations, historical data, peer company data and the judgment of management regarding future trends and other factors. The Company has estimated the expected term of its employee stock options using the “simplified” method, whereby, the expected term equals the arithmetic average of the vesting term and the original contractual term of the option due to its lack of sufficient historical data. The risk-free interest rates for periods within the expected term of the option are based on the US Treasury securities with a maturity date commensurate with the expected term of the associated award. The Company has never paid and does not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. The Company accounts for forfeitures when they occur. Stock-based compensation expense recognized in the financial statements is reduced by the actual awards forfeited.
Compensation cost for restricted stock awards issued to employees and non-employees is measured using the grant date fair value of the award, and expense is recognized over the service period, adjusted to reflect actual forfeitures. There have been no restricted stock awards issued or outstanding as of September 30, 2021 and 2020.
The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis and tax carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
A valuation allowance is established to reduce net deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized The Company recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. Recognized income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being recognized. Changes in recognition and measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are included in income tax expense.
Basic net loss per share excludes the effect of dilution and is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding.
Diluted net loss per share is computed by giving effect to all potential shares of common stock, including stock options and warrants to the extent dilutive. Basic net loss per share was the same as diluted net loss per share for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 as the inclusion of all potential common shares outstanding would have an anti-dilutive effect.
As of September 30, 2021, the penny warrants issued during 2019 have been excluded from the net loss per common share calculation following ASC 260-1-25-12A (Treatment of Contingently Issuable Shares in Weighted-Average Shares Outstanding) as they are not exercisable and while the Company is recognizing expense as it has determined that it is more likely than not that the terms of the warrant milestones will be met, (see NOTE 5), there are circumstances under which these shares would not be issued.
In accordance with ASC 260-10-45-13, exercisable penny options were included in the calculation of weighted average basic and diluted earnings per share.
The following is a summary of awards outstanding as of September 30, 2021 and 2020, which are not included in the computation of basic and diluted weighted average shares:
Three Months ended September 30, Nine Months ended September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
Stock options (excluding exercisable penny stock options) 630,593  238,141  630,593  238,141 
Convertible debt 1,449,574  —  1,449,574  — 
Warrants 422,549  422,549  422,549  422,549 
Total 2,502,716  660,690  2,502,716  660,690 
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12 - Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”). ASU 2019-12 is part of the FASB’s overall simplification initiative and seeks to simplify the accounting for income taxes by updating certain guidance and removing certain exceptions. The updated guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020 and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted this guidance on January 1, 2021. The impact to the unaudited financial statements following this guidance is deemed immaterial.
In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-10, Codification Improvements, which updates various codification topics by clarifying or improving disclosure requirements to align with the SEC’s regulations. The Company adopted ASU 2020-10 as of January 1, 2021. The impact to the unaudited financial statements following this guidance is deemed immaterial.
Not Yet Adopted as of September 30, 2021:
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13 “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses-Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments”. This guidance replaces the current incurred loss impairment methodology with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. The guidance applies to loans, accounts receivable, trade receivables and other financial assets measured at amortized cost, loan commitments, debt securities and beneficial interests in securitized financial assets, but the effect on the Company is projected to be limited to accounts receivable. In May 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-05 “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326)” which provides transition relief for companies adopting ASU 2016-13. This guidance amends ASU 2016-13 to allow companies to elect, upon adoption of ASU 2016-13, the fair value option on financial instruments that were previously recorded at amortized cost under certain circumstances. Companies are required to make this election on an instrument by instrument basis. The guidance will be effective for the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2023, including interim periods within that year.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06 (“ASU 2020-06”) “Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for
Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity.” ASU 2020-06 will simplify the accounting for convertible instruments by reducing the number of accounting models for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock. Limiting the accounting models will result in fewer embedded conversion features being separately recognized from the host contract as compared with current GAAP. Convertible instruments that continue to be subject to separation models are (1) those with embedded conversion features that are not clearly and closely related to the host contract, that meet the definition of a derivative, and that do not qualify for a scope exception from derivative accounting and (2) convertible debt instruments issued with substantial premiums for which the premiums are recorded as paid-in capital. ASU 2020-06 also amends the guidance for the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity to reduce form-over-substance-based accounting conclusions. ASU 2020-06 will be effective January 1, 2024, for the Company. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than January 1, 2021, including interim periods within that year. Management has not early adopted ASU 2020-06 and is currently evaluating the effects of the adoption, but currently believes the guidance will not have a significant impact on the Company’s accounting.